The National Museum of Resistance, built by the City of Esch-sur-Alzette at the initiative of the local section of the Luxembourg League of Political Prisoners and Deportees, was inaugurated in 1956. Coupled with the war memorial, it is erected in honor of the victims of Nazism and the workers who died in the mines and factories in the south of the country.
Since the early 1980s, the museum is managed by the City of Esch-sur-Alzette. In 1987, the permanent exhibition is reworked. At the end of the 1990s, a museum renovation project was launched, but did not succeed. Since 2008, the Ministry of Culture and the City have been releasing the staff managing the institution.
Finally, in 2015, a new renovation and expansion project is launched. The start of the expansion is scheduled for September 2018.
Since 1 January 2018, the new National Museum of Resistance Foundation has become the bearer of the museum.